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The ability to manipulate the basic properties at the atomic scale is the latest trend of modern technology that can be found in nanotechnologies. Ferromagnetic properties lead to the formation of permanent magnets but only three metals are ferromagnetic at room temperature – iron, cobalt and nickel. The magnet, when placed over certain metals like aluminium, brass, copper and even silver, may show small magnetic fields where the particles will move without touching. Such properties have been witnessed by people who use certain liquids, dollar bills; particles from breakfast cereals and sometimes, even strawberries.
Magnetism is the function of temperature and is dependent on temperature and in most cases of weak ferromagnetic properties, the temperature required to convert a non-magnet to magnet may be more than hundreds of degree Celsius. The property can be found in many novel technologies. Earlier it was used in data storage in RAM like magnetic memories and other devices where they became magnetic when exposed to fields that bring the magnetic alignment.
Titanium metal is used in aerospace and petrochemical industries due to properties like corrosion resistance. It is widely used in aerospace, petrochemical, architectural industries, chemicals and biological compatibility in medical industries. It is corrosion-resistant and cryogenic, which means, it can handle higher temperature and weight savings where the strength is very high and density is low. It is like the polymeric graphite fibre that is lightweight and can be used to build aircraft. Also, it has ballistic properties due to density normalized factors that make it useful for such activities. Titanium symbol is Ti. It is silver in colour and the atomic number is 22.
But titanium price is very high and this serves as a limiting factor for the industries using it. The cost in comparison to aluminium and steel and the key reasons for the high price is the cost involved in extractions and mining of the metal from the ore. The process is energy-intensive and the high reactivity requires related equipment and procedures which makes it expensive where its processing involves methods that are almost 10 to 100 times slower than other metals. It has been used in multiple medical procedures like hip replacement and patients may worry if the properties will lead to complications. Ti is weakly magnetic and may show Lenz effect to a lesser extent.
Titanium and gold are two precious metals that cannot be magnets unless they are combined as they have a low ferromagnetic property. In the last few years, new developments have been made in the field of nanoparticles. Due to the high surface to volume ratio, the nano-material suffers from defects and dislocations that affect the properties of the metal in some unexpected ways. The recent studies have found the bulk titanium nitride is non-magnetic which has static ferromagnetic and dynamic permeability properties. But the nano composition of TiN / C shows distinct static magnetic properties and exceptionally high permeability where it has a very high electromagnetic resonance.
In the last two decades, vast developments have been made in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It has become an indispensable tool in the musculoskeletal imagining process as there is an absence of ionizing radiation and multiplanar high-resolution capability. In body part implant of alloys of iron, nickel and chromium, a metallurgically balanced composition is used to preserve the properties against any kind of external magnetic field in a manner to create a non-magnetic alloy to prevent thermal damage to tissues caused by heating of the implant.
Most magnetic metals are great conductors and may get preferentially heated due to eddy current or RF effects. Implant of titanium contains a trace amount of iron, and in the annealed state, its structure is completely non-magnetic. Titanium shows weak magnetic properties as compared to other ferro magnetic metals when placed in the externally applied magnetic field.
Magnetism can be of three basic types – dia, para and ferro [or anti-ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism - the subclass of ferromagnetism)].
Diamagnetism means weak magnetism and it exists only in the presence of an external field. Such a property is not permanent. In dia, the applied external field acts on the atoms of the material and unbalance their orbit electrons to create small magnetic dipoles within the atoms that oppose the applied field. Such an action can create a negative magnetic effect that is called diamagnetism.
Some materials that show such properties at room temperature are copper and silver. Most organic material and superconducting material come under the category.
Titanium (Ti) is paramagnetic, which means, it is slightly stronger than diamagnetic when exposed to external field. In case of Ti the dipoles line up with the field and create positive magnetization. However, the dipoles may not interact and it creates the requirement for extremely large magnetic fields to align all the dipoles.
As the field is removed, the effect is lost and thermal agitation can randomize the direction of the dipoles, as with the increase in temperature, the paramagnetic effect decreases. Alkali and transition elements or rare earth elements come under the category.
Some of the commonly known paramagnetic materials are – aluminium, titanium, calcium, and alloys of copper. Magnetic susceptibility of such material lies in the range of +10 -5 to +10 -2.
Both para and diamagnetic material are considered non-magnetic as it exhibits such properties only in the presence of an external field. Some types of material have permanent magnetism even in the absence of an external field and such magnetic metals come under the category Ferro. It is the property where one can find permanent unpaired dipoles which are formed from unfilled energy levels.
There are some materials which are anti – ferro, which means, the dipoles line up in opposite directions and create zero magnetism, while, Ferri represents similar properties but in that condition, the material may behave like para when exposed to a higher temperature. Iron, nickel and cobalt are ferro and most ferrites come under ferri.
Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used for diagnosis, staging and follow up of disease. It is used to examine the musculoskeletal and cerebrovascular alignments as it has excellent soft-tissue contrast and is considered safe as compared to other alternatives. Also, it does not expose the body to radiations; however, there are many risks like there can be excessive magnetic field interactions.
Such a risk can be lowered by using titanium in various dental and orthopaedic implants. Especially, in the field of craniofacial surgery, Ti plates and screws can be used for fixation and reduction procedures.
The metal is essentially non-magnetic or very slightly paramagnetic, ideal for settings where minimum electromagnetic interference is required. The metal has a low density which is 56 per cent of the steel and 50 per cent of nickel and copper alloy. With higher strength, it translates into much lighter and smaller components for static and dynamic structures like the ones made into aerospace engines, airframes, transportable military equipment and lower stress for lighter rotating and reciprocating components.
Lower component weight and hand offloads achieved with Ti alloys where it exhibits a low modulus of elasticity make it intrinsically more resistant to shock and explosion damage. When irradiated, its isotopes exhibit short radioactive half-lives.
Also, it will not remain hot for more than several hours. Its high melting point is responsible for higher resistance against ignition and burning in the air which is a key requirement for making ballistic equipment. It is lightweight and some alpha and alpha-beta alloys have low ductile to brittle transition temperature which is a desired property for making cryogenic vessels and components.
It has weak magnetic properties. Gadolinium & palladium alloys with small amounts of gadolinium have been studied extensively for electron paramagnetic resonance. The magnetic field for this resonance is significantly different from that for gadolinium in alloys with non-transition metals. The effect is to make the gadolinium behave as it does in non-metallic situations or in solution in simple metals. The same effect is produced, incidentally, by adding silver to palladium containing gadolinium.
Titanium exhibits Lenz Effect to a lesser extent and when a magnet is passed over it shows weak magnetic properties. When a magnet is passed over the metals like silver, aluminium or brass, it causes electrical eddy current that has its magnetic fields and the field interacts with the moving magnet. [Eddy current can make the magnetic metals move without touching.]
Titanium has been recognized as an element with symbol Ti, atomic number 22 and Atomic Wt. 47.9. The strategic importance of mining it was recognized in the 20th century because it was unique due to properties - lightweight and structurally efficient for critically high-performance engines like the jet engines and airframe components. It was made into a high strength alloy and is used in many processes, and now its production has grown significantly.
Titanium alloys are now very common and are available as engineered metals that are used in several processes, mixed with stainless steel, copper or nickel-based alloys and other composites.
It is the 9th most abundant element that can be found in the earth crust and its significant unused processing can lead to continuous growth in productions and high volume applications.
Its smooth, non-corroding and hard-to-adhere property on the surface helps to maintain high cleanliness and such a surface also promotes drop wise condensation from aqueous vapours, consequently increasing condensation rates in coolers and condensers as compared to other metals. The ability to design and operate with high processes or cooling water side flow rate or turbulence also increases better heat transfer efficiency. Such features allow the creation of efficient and cost-effective heat exchanger.
The attractive properties of its alloys are
Non / para magnetic
Exceptional erosion-corrosion resistance
High fracture toughness
Moisture and chloride environment fail to cause any damage
Low thermal expansion coefficient
Higher MP ( melting point)
Higher intrinsic shock resistance
Higher ballistic resistance to density ratio
Non-toxic, non-allergic and fully biocompatible
Very short radioactive half-life
Outstanding cryogenic properties
The metal has exceptional corrosion resistance abilities that are derived from the protective oxide layer that makes it suitable for applications in seawater, marine and industrial chemical services. It is widely is used in missiles and petrochemical/ hydrocarbon production and power generation. It is also used in the desalination process, leaching, marine deep-sea applications, pollution control, offshore management, automotive components, sports equipment and medical devices.
The most attractive property of the metal is high strength to density which makes it suitable for aerospace use. Titanium alloys are widely used in industrial processes due to unique mechanical, physical and corrosion resistance features, which make it desirable for aerospace, chemical, industrial and energy industry services.
Magnetic susceptibility of a body is the property of acquisition of magnetic moment when it is exposed to a magnetic field. Susceptibility is one of the key properties that determines magnetism but other properties can be studied to identify and distinguish the properties of material like domains which create boundaries and zones in which the direction of the magnetic moment gradually and continuously moves.
Magnetic induction of the static magnetic field is one of the factors which are used to determine the clinical impact created by MRI. These days one can find high field MRI is used for daily practice and quantification of artefacts, and their distortive effects on the images taken through it can be difficult to trace. The magnetic susceptibility of any material that creates the artefacts is one of the major indicators of the potential adverse effects.
In certain cases, large image distortions can be found due to the presence of certain base metal dental alloys, whereas, the use of precious metals and titanium alloys used in implants are acceptable in MRI. Since there is no standard method used to measure the impact of ferro and non-ferro magnetic material, there are not many quantitative comparisons available. A less ferro magnetic material can get lower deflection off the fields. The degree of deflection produced by such an object depends on internal structure, chemical composition, physical properties, the shape and orientation in the field.
Some studies have found that MRI image of certain orthodontic appliances can get incomparable and controversial results due to higher magnetic material like stainless steel. Even in the absence of ferromagnetic archwires, the stainless steel brackets have rendered the scanners incapable of getting adjusted resonance frequency. It can cause significant issues in diagnostics of the central nervous system where the MRI is the method of choice. At the same time as the deflection angle of titanium, the bracket is zero and no torque was detected even in the case of a change in temperature.
It is widely used in various applications, aero engines, offshore platform pipework, implants and other competitive welding processes. It is strong steel like elements but is 45 per cent lighter and its alloys work continuously at temperature up to 600 degree Celsius where it resists creep and oxidation, and it can survive indefinitely without corrosion in seawater and other chloride environments. The metallurgical characteristics give it a favourable property which can be reproduced by the selection of the best methods in wielding the joints with such alloys.
The metal alloys can be fusion welded and all alloys can be joined by solid-state processes where such wields are substantially immune to many of the cracking problems that lead to various trouble with ferrous and fabrications. Such techniques can be handled only by the specialist fabricators. Embrittlement through contamination with air and carbonaceous material pose the largest threat to successful fusion welding titanium. The weldment through inert gas is commercially viable and easy to implement.
Some of the prominent properties of titanium alloys that can be used to identify it are -
the primary attribute that makes the element a great choice is the higher strength to density property that is the primary incentive for selecting the metal for designing the aerospace engines and airframe structures and its components. It has low density, almost 50 per cent of the weight of nickel, steel and copper.
Titanium shows exceptional corrosion resistance that is superior to chlorides, oxidizing acidic media, sour environment and seawater. The corrosion resistance properties make it suitable for chemical processes and industrial use.
Titanium is one of the non- magnetic metals that are slightly paramagnetic, which means, it is ideal for conditions where low electromagnetic interference is required. It can be used in case of housing electronic equipment implantation and logging tools.
When it is irradiated, it shows extremely short radioactive activities, and it does not remain hot for long. It has a very high melting point and is highly resistant to ignition and burning in air, while, the inherent ballistic resistance reduce the risks of melting and burning during a ballistic impact. Hence, it can be used as a lightweight armour material.
It has excellent elevated temperature properties up to 600 degree Celsius or 1100 degree Fahrenheit.
The alpha and alpha-beta alloys of the metal have a low ductility to brittle transition temperatures and hence, it is considered very attractive for cryogenic vessels and components.
Its alloys also depict the SN fatigue strength and life in air properties, which can be used to get high fracture toughness with minimal environmental degradation.
The higher strength as compared to structural steel and elevated temperature properties make it useful for hot gas turbine and auto engine components. Even the lower strength alloys are resistant to stress corrosion, cracking and corrosion fatigue in aqueous chloride.
Titanium shows a low modulus of elasticity which is almost half of steel and nickel alloys and this higher flexibility means, it is ideal for making springs, body implant, dental fixtures and drill pipes.
Also, it is non-allergenic, fully biocompatible and non-toxic. It is used in body implants, prosthetic devices and jewellery and also in food processing. It does not cause allergic reactions or other side effects in the body.
Titanium alloys are intrinsically more resistant to shock and explosion damage as found in the military application and other engineering materials. Such alloys contain coefficient of thermal expansion, which is significantly less as compared to ferrous, nickel, aluminium and copper alloys.
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