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Nanoparticles NPs research is one of the current intense areas offering a wide variety of applications in optical, biomedical and electronics. It offers a range of special properties for bulk material. The particles smaller than 50nm are considered super tough and ductile when applied for bulk copper –where the change in properties may not be desirable in certain cases. The ferroelectric metals smaller than 10nm can change their magnetic properties as per the direction of room temperature, and this can lead to loss of memory. NPs have unexpected properties as they are too small to behave like the original metal. The melting point can be lower and it can face diffusion at a higher temperature. It has a higher surface area to volume ratio and when it interacts with the solvent, it easily creates suspensions.
These are small particles which can move across micro dimensions and can be surface engineered to get specific functional properties. The field recently discovered plasmonics that can be applied to a number of projects to derive its true economic value.
Solar cells make use of sun’s rays to generate electricity and many different types of cells have been designed in the past to get a low-cost option. Thin film solar cells are based on amorphous silicon and the use of nanoparticles on such films can reduce the absorption of rays due to the thickness of the film. To enhance absorption of radiations into the cells scientists have been using silver NPs where a thin layer of silver metal is deposited on the oxidized surface of the thin silicon film. The NPs can scatter light efficiency to create a trap to enhance performance.
There are various different methods adopted by researchers to make use of the properties of NPs like combining a quantum well with NPs where a lower bandgap material can be sandwiched between the higher gap barriers to promote light absorption.
The method using the c-Silicon band gap increases cost but certain alteration like the use of porous silicon provides a convenient way of achieving the goal.
Basically, the nanoparticles work as actors that can undergo the process of charge transfer to increase the efficiency of the cells.
The use of such technologies is widely grown in a number of areas like energy, health, cosmetics and water shortages, where high index all dielectric NPs enabled the aggregation of particles for better absorption of radiations.
The studies on biogenic that is bacteria-powered cells have been conducted, which provides economical and efficient ways to deliver sustainable and organic solar cells made from hydrochloric acids, silicone and metals like platinum.
It can be used to promote healthy lives and well being, and for environmental assessing and remediation, which can promote sustainable management of water.
The University of Lisbon (Instituto Superior Técnico) recently, made use of the technology in biological targeting, where stable dyes and specific scanning fluorescence imaging of small articles in the range of 10 nm was conducted.
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