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Nanoparticle NPs research is one of the current intense areas offering various optical, biomedical and electronic applications. It offers a range of special properties for bulk material.
The particles smaller than 50nm are considered super tough and ductile when applied to bulk copper –where the change in properties may not be desirable in certain cases.
The Ferroelectric metals smaller than 10nm can change their magnetic properties per room temperature direction, leading to memory loss. NPs have unexpected properties as they are too small to behave like the original metal.
The melting point can be lower and face diffusion at a higher temperature. It has a higher surface area to volume ratio, and when it interacts with the solvent, it easily creates suspensions.
These small particles can move across micro dimensions and be surface engineered to get specific functional properties. The field recently discovered plasmonics that can be applied to several projects to derive their true economic value.
Solar cells use the sun’s rays to generate electricity, and many different types of cells have been designed in the past to get a low-cost option.
Thin film solar cells are based on amorphous silicon, and using nanoparticles on such films can reduce the absorption of rays due to the thickness of the film.
To enhance the absorption of radiations into the cells, scientists have been using silver NPs, where a thin layer of silver metal is deposited on the oxidized surface of the thin silicon film. The NPs can scatter light efficiently to create a trap to enhance performance.
Researchers adopt various methods to use the properties of NPs, like combining a quantum well with NPs where a lower bandgap material can be sandwiched between the higher gap barriers to promote light absorption.
The method using the c-Silicon band gap increases cost, but certain alteration, like porous silicon, provides a convenient way of achieving the goal.
The nanoparticles work as actors that can undergo the process of charge transfer to increase the efficiency of the cells.
The use of such technologies is widely grown in several areas like energy, health, cosmetics and water shortages, where the high index of all-dielectric NPs enabled the aggregation of particles for better absorption of radiations.
Studies on biogenic, that is, bacteria-powered cells, have been conducted, which provide economical and efficient ways to deliver sustainable and organic solar cells made from hydrochloric acids, silicone and metals like platinum.
It can be used to promote healthy lives and well-being and for environmental assessment and remediation, which can promote sustainable water management.
The University of Lisbon (Instituto Superior Técnico) recently used the technology in biological targeting, where stable dyes and specific scanning fluorescence imaging of small articles in the range of 10 nm were conducted.
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